From wikipedia . . .
A carnivore (pron.: /ˈkɑrnɪvɔər/) meaning ‘meat eater’ (Latin, carne meaning ‘flesh’ and vorare meaning ‘to devour’) is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging. Animals that depend solely on animal flesh for their nutrient requirements are considered obligate carnivores while those that also consume non-animal food are considered facultative carnivores. Omnivores also consume both animal and non-animal food, and apart from the more general definition, there is no clearly defined ratio of plant to animal material that would distinguish a facultative carnivore from an omnivore, or an omnivore from a facultative herbivore, for that matter. A carnivore that sits at the top of the foodchain is an apex predator.
Plants that capture and digest insects are called carnivorous plants. Similarly, fungi that capture microscopic animals are often called carnivorous fungi.
The four living species of the Panthera genus (Panthera leo (lion), Panthera onca (jaguar), Panthera pardus (leopard), and Panthera tigris (tiger)) may produce a number of hybrid crosses. These hybrids are often given a compound name reflecting their breeding, while at other times they bear a more traditional name.
Lion ♀ Tiger ♀ Jaguar ♀ Leopard ♀ Liger ♀ Tigon ♀
Lion Lion Liger Liguar Lipard Liliger Litigon
Tiger Tigon Tiger Tiguar Tigard
Jaguar Jaglion Jagger Jaguar Jagupard
Leopard Leopon Dogla Leguar Leopard
via wikipedia . . .
Public Beta: “Kodiak”
Main article: Mac OS X Public Beta
On September 13, 2000 Apple released a $29.95 “preview” version of Mac OS X (internally codenamed Kodiak) in order to gain feedback from users.
The “PB” as it was known marked the first public availability of the Aqua interface and Apple made many changes to the UI based on customer feedback. Mac OS X Public Beta expired and ceased to function in Spring 2001.
Version 10.0: “Cheetah”
Main article: Mac OS X v10.0
On March 24, 2001, Apple released Mac OS X v10.0 (internally codenamed Cheetah). The initial version was slow, incomplete, and had very few applications available at the time of its launch, mostly from independent developers. While many critics suggested that the operating system was not ready for mainstream adoption, they recognized the importance of its initial launch as a base on which to improve. Simply releasing Mac OS X was received by the Macintosh community as a great accomplishment, for attempts to completely overhaul the Mac OS had been underway since 1996, and delayed by countless setbacks. Following some bug fixes, kernel panics became much less frequent.
Version 10.1: “Puma”
Main article: Mac OS X v10.1
Later that year on September 25, 2001, Mac OS X v10.1 (internally codenamed Puma) was released. It had better performance and provided missing features, such as DVD playback. Apple released 10.1 as a free upgrade CD for 10.0 users, in addition to the US$129 boxed version for people running Mac OS 9. It was discovered that the upgrade CDs were full install CDs that could be used with Mac OS 9 systems by removing a specific file; Apple later re-released the CDs in an actual stripped-down format that did not facilitate installation on such systems. On January 7, 2002, Apple announced that Mac OS X was to be the default operating system for all Macintosh products by the end of that month.
Version 10.2: “Jaguar”
Main article: Mac OS X v10.2
On August 23, 2002, Apple followed up with Mac OS X v10.2 “Jaguar”, the first release to use its code name as part of the branding. It brought great raw performance improvements, a sleeker look, and many powerful user-interface enhancements (over 150, according to Apple ), including Quartz Extreme for compositing graphics directly on an ATI Radeon or Nvidia GeForce2 MX AGP-based video card with at least 16 MB of VRAM, a system-wide repository for contact information in the new Address Book, and an instant messaging client named iChat. The Happy Mac which had appeared during the Mac OS startup sequence for almost 18 years was replaced with a large grey Apple logo with the introduction of Mac OS X v10.2.
Version 10.3: “Panther”
Main article: Mac OS X Panther
Mac OS X v10.3 “Panther” was released on October 24, 2003. In addition to providing much improved performance, it also incorporated the most extensive update yet to the user interface. Panther included as many or more new features as Jaguar had the year before, including an updated Finder, incorporating a brushed-metal interface, Fast user switching, Exposé (Window manager), FileVault, Safari, iChat AV (which added videoconferencing features to iChat), improved Portable Document Format (PDF) rendering and much greater Microsoft Windows interoperability. Support for some early G3 computers such as “beige” Power Macs and “WallStreet” PowerBooks was discontinued.
Version 10.4: “Tiger”
Main article: Mac OS X Tiger
Mac OS X v10.4 “Tiger” was released on April 29, 2005. Apple stated that Tiger contained more than 200 new features. As with Panther, certain older machines were no longer supported; Tiger requires a Mac with a built-in FireWire port. Among the new features, Tiger introduced Spotlight, Dashboard, Smart Folders, updated Mail program with Smart Mailboxes, QuickTime 7, Safari 2, Automator, VoiceOver, Core Image and Core Video. The initial release of the Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer applications and services. On January 10, 2006, Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the 10.4.4 update to Tiger. This operating system functioned identically on the PowerPC-based Macs and the new Intel-based machines, with the exception of the Intel release dropping support for the Classic environment. Only PowerPC Macs can be booted from retail copies of the Tiger client DVD, but there is a Universal DVD of Tiger Server 10.4.7 (8K1079) that can boot both PowerPC and Intel Macs.
Version 10.5: “Leopard”
Main article: Mac OS X Leopard
Mac OS X v10.5 “Leopard” was released on October 26, 2007. It was called by Apple “the largest update of Mac OS X”. It brought more than 300 new features. Leopard supports both PowerPC- and Intel x86-based Macintosh computers; support for the G3 processor was dropped and the G4 processor required a minimum clock rate of 867 MHz, and at least 512 MB of RAM to be installed. The single DVD works for all supported Macs (including 64-bit machines). New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine, Spaces, Boot Camp pre-installed, full support for 64-bit applications (including graphical applications), new features in Mail and iChat, and a number of new security features. Leopard is an Open Brand UNIX 03 registered product on the Intel platform. It was also the first BSD-based OS to receive UNIX 03 certification. Leopard dropped support for the Classic Environment and all Classic applications.
It was the final version of Mac OS X to support the PowerPC architecture.
Version 10.6: “Snow Leopard”
Main article: Mac OS X Snow Leopard
Mac OS X v10.6 “Snow Leopard” was released on August 28, 2009. Rather than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user functionality like the previous releases of Mac OS X, Snow Leopard focuses on “under the hood” changes, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system. For most users, the most noticeable changes are: the disk space that the operating system frees up after a clean install compared to Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, a more responsive Finder rewritten in Cocoa, faster Time Machine backups, more reliable and user friendly disk ejects, a more powerful version of the Preview application, as well as a faster Safari web browser.
Mac OS X v10.6 also features Microsoft Exchange Server support for Mail, iCal, and Address Book, new 64-bit technology capable of supporting greater amounts of RAM, an all new QuickTime X with a refreshed user interface and more functionality that used to be only available to QuickTime Pro owners.
Back-end platform changes include improved support for multi-core processors through Grand Central Dispatch which attempts to ease the development of applications with multi-core support, and thus improve their CPU utilization. It used to be that developers needed to code their programs in such a way that their software would explicitly take advantage of the multiple cores, which could easily become a tedious and troublesome task, especially in complex software. It also includes advanced GPU performance with OpenCL (a cross platform open standard for GPGPU distinct from CUDA, Dx11 Compute Shader or STREAM) by providing support to offload work normally only destined for a CPU to the graphic card’s GPU. This can be especially useful in tasks that can be heavily parallelized.
An update introduced support for the Mac App Store, Apple’s digital distribution platform for OS X applications.
Snow Leopard only supports machines with Intel CPUs, requires at least 1 GB of RAM, and drops default support for applications built for the PowerPC architecture (Rosetta can be installed as an additional component to retain support for PowerPC-only applications).
Version 10.7: “Lion”
Mac OS X Lion was announced at WWDC 2011 at Moscone West.
Main article: Mac OS X Lion
Mac OS X v10.7 “Lion” was released on July 20, 2011. It brought developments made in Apple’s iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications (Launchpad) and (a greater use of) multi-touch gestures, to the Mac. This release removed Rosetta, making it incapable of running PowerPC applications.
Changes made to the GUI (Graphical User Interface) include the Launchpad (similar to the home screen of iOS devices), auto-hiding scrollbars that only appear when they are being used, and Mission Control, which unifies Exposé, Spaces, Dashboard, and full-screen applications within a single interface. Apple also made changes to applications: they resume in the same state as they were before they were closed (similar to iOS). Documents auto-save by default.
Version 10.8: “Mountain Lion”
Main article: OS X Mountain Lion
OS X v10.8 “Mountain Lion” was released on July 25, 2012. It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Center, support for iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal (which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app). It also includes support for storing iWork documents in iCloud. Notification Center, which makes its debut in Mountain Lion, is a desktop version similar to the one in iOS 5.0 and higher. Application pop-ups are now concentrated on the corner of the screen, and the Center itself is pulled from the right side of the screen. Mountain Lion also includes more Chinese features including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine, QQ, 163.com and 126.com services for Mail, Contacts and Calendar, Youku, Tudou and Sina Weibo are integrated into share sheets.
Notification Center is added in the operating system. It provides an overview of alerts from applications and displays notifications until the user completes an associated action, rather than requiring instant resolution. Users may choose what applications appear in Notification Center, and how they are handled. There are three types of notifications: banners, alerts, and badges. Banners are displayed for a short amount of time in the upper right corner of the Mac’s screen, and the slide off to the right. The icon of the application is displayed on the left side of the banner, while the message from it will be displayed on the right side. Alerts are the same as banners, but will not disappear from the screen until the user takes action. Badges are red notification icons that are displayed on the application’s icon. They tell the number of items available for the application.
Notes, a new notes application, is added. It is now separate from Mail in its own application, with support for desktop notes added (syncs along with its iOS counterpart). Created notes are synced through all the user’s Apple devices through the iCloud service. Notes can be arranged in folders, and pinned to the user’s desktop. When the application is closed, the pinned note still remains.
Messages, an instant messaging software application, is added in Mountain Lion. It was announced on February 16, 2012, as part of the OS X Mountain Lion developer preview. Starting with this release, Messages replaces iChat as the default OS X instant-messaging client. A free beta version of Messages was available to download for Mac OS X Lion from the Apple website until late June 2012. The final version of Messages was included with the release version of OS X Mountain Lion.
As with its predecessor, Messages has text messaging, audio, and screen-sharing capabilities. Messages also contains native video conversation support, utilising Apple’s FaceTime video calling application where possible. However, it does retain video capabilities for interfacing with other instant messaging clients. Messages supports Apple’s iMessage, a free instant messaging service previously only available on devices running iOS 5. It also supports both XMPP (shown in the application under its former name, Jabber) and the AIM OSCAR. In addition, it also offers a direct connection to Yahoo! Messenger and Google Talk.
via ARA . . .
Our planet is exposed to important natural variations resulting from numerous complex, internal, or external processes. These variations are at the basis of the natural evolution of the Earth climate. Since the late 1880s, human activities add to natural influences that have been present over Earth’s history. Scientific evidence strongly indicates that natural influences cannot explain the rapid increase in global near-surface temperatures observed since the second half of the 20th century.
Ongoing climate research largely relies on an intricate coupling between modelling, which tends to account for an increasing number of processes and their interaction, and observation, which allows complex mechanisms and their parameterization to be studied in details. In particular, space borne observing systems bring global scale data essential to the evaluation of model results and of the assumptions they carry.
Interpretation of space measured radiative fluxes in terms of atmospheric thermodynamics and chemical variables is, in general, extremely complex and mixes numerous scientific domains as: quantum mechanics, from which emission and absorption spectra may be described; the forward modelling of radiative transfer, which allows radiance space measurements to be expressed in terms of the sate of the atmosphere; inverse problem theory and its application to the inversion of the radiative transfer equation; last, statistical methods and tools which open the way to interpreting huge data bases and analysing results of long-term time series.
The Atmospheric Radiation Analysis (ARA) team of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) is one of the few groups in the world to gather all these theoretical skills. This has allowed developing a complete chain designed for processing satellite data at global scale on which rely different research activities aiming at improving our knowledge of the climate variability and evolution.
Geographical maps of high cloud amount (cloud pressure smaller than 440 hPa) for January (left) and for July (right), above: averaged over 8 years (1987-1995, observation time: 7h30/19h30 local timeTOVS Path-B cloud climatology) middle: averaged over 6 year (2003-2008, observation time 1h30/13h30 local time AIRS-LMD cloud climatology) and below: first results from IASI for 2008.
via ncbi.nlm.nih.gov . . .
T-maps of the correlation between the measured (a) or simulated (b) cardiac rate and resting-state fMRI signal timecourses in one slice of a single subject for lags -10 to +10 TR (± 1 minute). The t-values above the threshold are shown overlaid on the first raw EPI image. The t-maps and images have been masked to exclude areas outside the brain. There is a small area of correlation that appears outside the brain where the skull-stripping failed to remove subcutaneous tissue.
From psychcentral . . .
Functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, is a technique for measuring brain activity. It works by detecting the changes in blood oxygenation and flow that occur in response to neural activity – when a brain area is more active it consumes more oxygen and to meet this increased demand blood flow increases to the active area. fMRI can be used to produce activation maps showing which parts of the brain are involved in a particular mental process.
The development of FMRI in the 1990s, generally credited to Seiji Ogawa and Ken Kwong, is the latest in long line of innovations, including positron emission tomography (PET) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which use blood flow and oxygen metabolism to infer brain activity. As a brain imaging technique FMRI has several significant advantages:
1. It is non-invasive and doesn’t involve radiation, making it safe for the subject.
2. It has excellent spatial and good temporal resolution.
3. It is easy for the experimenter to use.
The attractions of FMRI have made it a popular tool for imaging normal brain function – especially for psychologists. Over the last decade it has provided new insight to the investigation of how memories are formed, language, pain, learning and emotion to name but a few areas of research. FMRI is also being applied in clinical and commercial settings.
via Mithru’s website >> more info there with detailed explanation of the project.
Aleph of Emotions is a project that was created during my study at LASALLE College of the Arts, Singapore. The project is about emotions and the possible observable patterns in global emotions.
The Aleph, according to author, Jorge Luis Borges, is a point in the Universe where all other points exist. Therefore, anyone looking at the Aleph could see everything in the Universe at once. In this project, I use the Aleph as a metaphor for an archive; Aleph of Emotions refers to an archive of emotions. This archive is produced by data collected from twitter. Data is collected based on keywords that define certain emotions. The results are finally presented with an interactive object.
Aleph of Emotions is an interactive object that allows users to view worldwide emotions collected from twitter. The camera-like interface allows users to point along a particular direction, focus to a place along that direction and click to view a visualization of emotions in that place. The intention is to explore and find patterns in human emotions with relation to space and time.
Special Thanks to the following people for their guidance and feedback for this project.
Mui Rui Yi
Music Source: (Orbique: Always now never after)
Emotions are categorized on the basis of Plutchik’s theory into joy, sadness, trust, disgust, fear, anger, surprise and anticipation. Plutchik also created a wheel-like diagram to explain his theory. In most illustrations, each emotion has a particular colour (see link below). These exact colours were used to visualize each emotion in this project.
Data is visualized for each day of the week and overall as well. The top most bar shows an overall distribution of emotions for the place. Each bar that follows represents a day of the week starting from Sunday.
Yellow represents joy, light green represents trust, dark green represents fear, light blue represents surprise, dark blue represents sadness, pink represents disgust, red represents anger and orange represents anticipation.
more info at LASALLE >>
La teoría de juegos es un área de la matemática aplicada que utiliza modelos para estudiar interacciones en estructuras formalizadas de incentivos (los llamados «juegos») y llevar a cabo procesos de decisión. Sus investigadores estudian las estrategias óptimas así como el comportamiento previsto y observado de individuos en juegos. Tipos de interacción aparentemente distintos pueden, en realidad, presentar estructura de incentivo similar y, por lo tanto, se puede representar mil veces conjuntamente un mismo juego.
El término “gay”, se estableció como palabra para describir a los homosexuales alrededor de los años 60… anteriormente significaba, otra cosa, de alguna manera relacionado pero no totalmente. Gay es de corazón liviano y libertad… la diferencia la crean los humanos. Ayer fui a ver una película en el cine del Trasnocho Cultural… un espacio en Caracas, donde se proyectan películas que además de entretener, hacen pensar sobre temas más universales, en mi opinión. La película, llamada Azul Y No Tan Rosa, trata sobre la relación familiar, la homosexualidad y Venezuela… curiosamente mezcla una metáfora con otra… la actuación y la consciencia. En 3 escenas pude ver una especie de efectos especiales que difícilmente se observan, recordando a través de la propia memoria, unas “señales” que forzosamente pasaban un mensaje, con intención sublime… (los efectos que recuerdo ahora fueron, mientras se revelan unas fotografías, aparece a la derecha de su frente, un recuerdo de un nacimiento…otro que no recuerdo…y el último es una estrella fugáz que habla de la música venezolana).
En la dualidad de la pareja, un otro nosotros… aparece, un bebé… por ejemplo, y quién lo trae al mundo impulsa la inevitable fuerza de cualquier vida, independientemente de la orientación sexual, el corazón pulsa libertad de expresar cada latido hasta que el cuerpo lo resista. Con ánimos de unión, la metáfora de la homosexualidad como rechazo cultural machista y discriminación social para ver el contexto actual que se vive en Venezuela deja evidencia de una consciencia artística en producción. De igual forma encuentro un contenido similar en el video de la banda Famasloop, con su canción Más Cerquita…del disco La Quema… excelente producción que se come el corazón de carne y luz que somos…
Nada es todo, todo es nada… grandes frutos promete el arte en mi país… a pesar de las mezclas que posiblemente vienen… narrativas lavativas, sigan drenando este peo que mucho aire involucra en la respiración de cerebros ávidos de oxígeno y glóbulos rojos atolondrados con azules de la atmósfera celestial.
Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer digital currency:
Bitcoins can be sent easily through the Internet,
Transactions are irreversible,
They are safe from uncontrolled inflation
Bitcoin is an experimental new digital currency that enables instant payments to anyone, anywhere in the world. Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority: managing transactions and issuing money are carried out collectively by the network. Bitcoin is also the name of the open source software which enables the use of this currency.
The software is a community-driven open source project, released under the MIT license and originally created by Satoshi Nakamoto.
Bitcoin is one of the first implementations of a concept called crypto-currency which was first described in 1998 by Wei Dai on the cypherpunks mailing list. Building upon the notion that money is any object, or any sort of record, accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a given country or socio-economic context, Bitcoin is designed around the idea of using cryptography to control the creation and transfer of money, rather than relying on central authorities.
Sourced from Bitcoin.org and Wikipedia.
Windows (exe) 9.3 MB (zip) 13 MB
GNU/Linux 12 MB
Mac OS X 13 MB
Bitcoins are sent easily through the Internet, without needing to trust any third party.
Are irreversible by design
Are fast. Funds received are available for spending within minutes.
Cost very little, especially compared to other payment networks.
The supply of bitcoins is regulated by software and the agreement of users of the system and cannot be manipulated by any government, bank, organization or individual. The limited inflation of the Bitcoin system’s money supply is distributed evenly (by CPU power) to miners who help secure the network.